How a growing prop-tech company is helping big business save space and deliver new ways of working

Feature Article

A growing workplace technology specialist is making an impact in sensor-based office space management, as firms seek better returns on real estate and new ways of working and retaining staff.

Hundreds of corporations worldwide have introduced Abintra’s WiseNet system to monitor and manage the use of desks, meeting rooms and other office spaces.

The patented system, two years in the making, relies on industry-leading sensors that detect if anyone is occupying a desk or a seat in a meeting room. The Wisenet software then delivers a real-time visual display of space usage floor by floor. Crucially, it gathers statistics over time that can be used to make space saving decisions such as implementing desk sharing, how many desks are required and rationalisation of office space. This in turn creates opportunities to introduce new ways of working with wellbeing spaces, such as break out and cafe areas.

Once a desk sharing system has been implemented, the system delivers information on communal screens so that employees can locate free desks, meeting rooms and other spaces.

Meanwhile, for managers, it allows for ongoing review of space usage and for dealing with that trickiest of tasks, managing use and abuse of meeting rooms. It displays information about how many people, if any, are in a meeting room against booking information for a better understanding of space requirement.

Abintra says Wisenet sets the standard in space utilisation systems. Unlike competing solutions, it doesn’t rely on employees to log on to a computer, upload an app to a phone or carry a sensor around with them to sense that someone is using a space. Methods like these have obvious drawbacks because they fall down if the employee accidentally or on purposes fails to use them. They also raise the spectre of employers spying on employees whereas the Wisenet sensors effectively record that someone is in a space without reporting on what he or she is doing or his or her identity.

Wisenet also scores against systems using off-the-shelf sensors, because its purpose-built devices are more precise and more discreet because they can be mounted underneath and at the back of a desk rather than close to the edge. That precision is important because it enables monitoring of other kinds of spaces than desks, notably individual meeting room seats. Wisenet says other systems can’t match its reliability in those areas and often amazed how companies get talked out of this most important requirement.

Tony Booty, director at Abintra, says: “Most organisations know they could reuse some space, probably a lot of it, but fear staff won’t understand how that can happen without them being cramped together. We can help. Instead of corporate real estate managers being seen as the enemy by building users, we give you a way to prove what will best support the requirement. Once people understand the statistics, they will understand the solution, which can be a better environment with a variety of spaces, better suited to the changing world of work.”

Wisenet maintains that any organisation can benefit from reviewing its space utilisation, but the company is typically called in when a corporation is going through a reorganisation, restructure or merger, or when it is considering moving offices.

“Once you have the data, you might discover you do not need to move to bigger premises, after all, but if you do, you will have a much better understanding of how much space you need in the new location,” says Tony Booty.

Banks, insurance companies and local authorities are among those who have used Wisenet to inform decisions about real estate, sometimes making huge savings in space usage and associated costs. Another significant benefit that Abintra points to is staff retention and reduced HR costs, by allowing customers to reconfigure floors for agile working with collaborative spaces and even coffee shops.

When the system was used to reconfigure one floor of an insurance company’s building, it opened the door to staff welcoming a move to new offices where they knew all floors would be configured that way.

There are other uses for the data, including risk management, providing information on how much space would be needed if an operation has to relocate because of an emergency such as a flood. It can be used to plan efficient security routes and to reduce energy costs and carbon footprint by managing heating and air conditioning based on utilisation. The sensors record temperature as well as occupancy.

Perhaps the feature that resonates most loudly with customers is accurate meeting room scheduling. Unlike button systems or paper trails, the system reports on how many people, if any, are in a meeting room at any time without those people being required to do anything. One customer discovered a senior executive was routinely using a large meeting room as an annex to his office. Another found that staff were regularly booking pricey hotel meeting rooms in Belgravia when, contrary to what their Intranet was telling them, there was meeting space free in the office.

Break Down Silo Mentality or Miss Out on Smart Buildings and Agile Working – Abintra Warns

Corporations must break down the silo mentality of their teams to unlock the potential of agile working.

That’s the verdict of international flexible workplace specialist Abintra, which pioneered workplace utilisation technology more than a decade ago with its WiseNet system, and which has advised more than 100 corporations worldwide to monitor office usage and redesign workspaces.

The consultancy warns that unless firms take a business-wide approach, they will fail to implement flexible working properly and will miss out on the advent of smart buildings.

David Maddison, Abintra’s Head of Sales EMEA, said: “Firms need to take a holistic approach to reorganising the way they work. It shouldn’t be just the preserve of the real estate or FM team. It needs to be communicated across the whole business. HR should be fully involved to help to create an improved environment. Other departments, such as IT, have important roles to play. Management should be driving change towards corporate objectives, such as improved efficiency and better recruitment and retention. To make it happen, they need to do more than delegate it to a single team, they need to bring teams together on an enterprise-wide mission.”

Mr Maddison said advances in smart buildings added new emphasis to the need for a well-rounded approach to workplace design. “We now have the technology not only to enable flexible working but also to monitor and control the environment down to the individual desk level. As smart buildings gain traction, it’s crucial that teams work together to reap the rewards, looking beyond energy savings and towards creating a better, more productive work environment, one that contributes to employees’ health and wellbeing.”

Referring to the Vischer* three-level comfort model of wellbeing at work, he said: “By monitoring the office environment and how and when it is being used, we can create adaptable workplaces that address all users’ needs, from physical comfort and wellbeing to how the environment supports them to do their job effectively.”

Abintra reports an increasing number of enquiries from customers wanting to overhaul their working environments as employee wellbeing rises up the corporate agenda.

“Recruitment and retention are massive priorities for major corporations, and this is leading to more and more of them reviewing their working environments,” said Mr Maddison.

Abintra points out that involving the workforce in the process is a crucial step to making it work. It is important to convey respect to the worker, one of the linchpins of theory put forward by people-centred-design researcher Professor Jeremy Myerson.

It is important because so-called knowledge workers, the kind that typically populate the offices of major corporations, have a strong sense of control. There is a risk of threatening that sense by failing to involve them or, on the contrary, offering too much choice, which can be alarming for some people.

Mr Maddison said: “Also under the banner of conveying respect to the worker is silent messaging, the cues that an office environment gives to the people who work in it. That speaks much louder about an employer than any mission statement. Ideally, it should provide a sense of community.”

The second linchpin is that office environments should support the work that needs to be done and provide an environment that allows workers to refresh themselves mentally.

There is no doubt that corporations have space to play with. A recently-published Abintra report reveals that large office-based firms with 250 or more employees in England and Wales are together spending more than £10 billion on under-used Grade A office space.

Mr Maddison concluded: “This all relates to organisations valuing their number one asset, their people, and leveraging their second biggest overhead, their workplace, to develop environments that address these key factors.”

*Three levels of workplace comfort

  1. Physical comfort or basic habitability. Most modern workplaces already meet this level.
  2. Functional comfort supports employees to better perform their work, including lighting, temperature, layout, ambience and ergonomics. Few workplaces get beyond this level.
  3. Psychological comfort is concerned with more than just the employee’s performance. It relates to factors such as territory, privacy, trust, control, attachment and belonging. This is the key to improving mental wellbeing through workplace design.

Flexible working in the news

Flexible working, desk sensors and office utilization monitoring in the media

What is flexible working? That’s a question we come across often here at Abintra. Most people think it’s about being able to work flexible hours, allowing employees to have a better work-life balance.

But there is more to it, as recent media articles demonstrate.

In the first, Legal Futures, a UK website for forward-thinking law firms, asks if flexible working can save the environment. Now that’s an idea!

Read it here

It points out that despite the rise in flexible working, the daily commute is still very much a key feature of the working day. The right to request flexible working was rolled out in 2014 but five years on, less than one in ten jobs paying more than £20k are advertised as flexible.

It says the main drivers for flexible working are cost cutting by reducing real estate costs and social benefits (family friendliness), but it says reduced impact on the environment should be another, as fewer commutes would cut pollution. It points to a report from the Carbon Trust claiming that homeworking could save around 3 million tons of carbon emissions in the UK.

In a second article, Workplace Insight, another UK online resource looks at the vogue theme of agile working.

Read it here

It’s a hot concept for progressive managers looking to break away from traditional working models in pursuit of more creativity and productivity. We should say here that in our experience, workplaces redesigned for agility are also popular with employees, and they go hand in hand with flexible working, of course.

Workplace Insight, whose readers include HR, IT and facilities managers, looks back to The Agile Manifesto, which way back in 2001 signalled a shift in approach to workplace design. One of a dozen principles in the manifesto is that you should build projects around motivated individuals and give them the environment they need to get the job done.

According to the piece, flexible working, activity-based working, remote working, and unassigned seating are all manifestations of this idea. Work is changing, and workplaces need to reflect this, it notes, listing three primary drivers behind the shift to agile working in the UK.
1. Reducing costs: Switching to flexible working reduces the need for expensive real estate.
2. Growth: Activity-based designs allow companies to flex as occupancy rates fluctuate.
3. Employee experience: Insight points out that organisations are fighting a “war for talent, so offices need to be appealing. Three out of four employees cite flexibility as one of their top two reasons to stay with an employer.

The third media piece comes from Open Access Government, an international forum on public policy, and it focuses on a subject close to our hearts, smart buildings. This piece says smart technologies can improve the sustainability of commercial buildings alongside other “soft” benefits such as health and wellbeing.

Read it here

It reckons firms’ sustainability strategies have been a major driver for the technology which gives facilities managers more efficient controls over energy usage with significant reductions in consumption.

Smart systems allow lighting, heating, air conditioning and ventilation to be monitored and adjusted according to a building’s usage and occupation, even down to an individual employee’s preferences when connected to individual desk sensors.

Moving on to the subject of wellbeing, the article says smart tech has an important role in health and wellbeing by creating an environment that helps people to stay alert and energised.

Abintra’s WiseNet sensors can monitor air quality, light, temperature and noise levels among other factors that affect employees’ concentration levels.

One of the main points we make to our customers is that offering employees the opportunity to work flexibly is – or should be – just one direction of a two-way street. In return, our experience is that employees are much better disposed to accepting desk sharing and new agile working systems.

This argument is even stronger when the environmental improvements are added in to the mix, with many employees concerned about wider environmental issues and reducing their own carbon footprint. The environmental theme is also especially compelling when employees are given the power to adapt their individual desk environment to their personal taste.

Accurate data about office use is key to flexible working

Abintra News Release

Firms are failing to implement flexible working because of poor data about how they use their office space, warns a leading workplace specialist.

Abintra, which pioneered the use of sensors to measure office use, says many managers still rely on gut feeling or flawed systems to make important real estate decisions.

The rising popularity of agile working has seen many firms reorganise their workplaces to attract and retain the best people. Flexible working can also save money by cutting the amount of expensive real estate that firms own or rent.

Abintra, which has helped hundreds of major corporations worldwide to introduce flexible working, warns that one of the reasons firms are falling at the first hurdle is that they are failing to understand how they currently use their office space. That leads to “flexible” solutions that don’t work because they don’t offer enough of the right kinds of spaces or because they inflate or deflate the amount of real estate that an organisation actually needs.

The company recently published a report on emerging trends in occupancy management in 2019 listing unreliable methods being used to assess usage statistics. These included manual “clipboard” studies and video tracking of people coming into or leaving an office space. The former doesn’t allow for detailed analysis of work patterns while the latter doesn’t deliver data on individual desk use.

Abintra favours the use of infrared sensors mounted to the underside of work surfaces to detect presence. It offers fast-track surveys using the technology to give managers in-depth data in four weeks.

Find out more about surveys

Tony Booty, a Director of the company, says: “Unlike sensors attached to individuals or systems that rely on using employees’ phones, it is a non-invasive solution, making it easier to win staff approval.”

The company provides number crunching software enabling managers to see how office space is being used via their web browser. The data can be interrogated to give an accurate view of office use over different time periods.

Once flexible working is implemented, the same technology can be used to generate a live floor plan. This allows staff to work flexibly by seeing where space to work is available and choosing different places to work within the office depending on what they are working on or just the mood that they are in.

With the launch of a new combined sensor, Abintra can also provide data on key environmental metrics as well as space utilisation, such as temperature and air quality. That allows facilities managers to deliver high levels of comfort for office users while helping to reduce energy waste. For example, by collecting data on the environmental conditions at each workstation, systems can be adjusted to provide improved levels of temperature and humidity control.

Time for businesses to future proof office real estate

News Release

Businesses should be investing in future-proofing their office real estate for smart building technology or pay the price down the line, warns a leading specialist.

Workspace flexibility specialist Abintra says it is seeing a drift among some corporations towards buying low-cost, basic sensors to monitor desk usage when they could be investing in technology with greater capabilities and future-proofing systems for advances in smart buildings and the Internet of Things (IoT).

Big businesses are increasingly using sensors to look at how their office real estate is being used and to make decisions about downsizing or moving, but Abintra warns that some inferior tech is not only not up to the job but will be unable to plug into the smart buildings of the future. The firm forecasts that corporations which don’t think about the big picture will be faced with a stark choice: Scrap their existing space management technology and reinvest with all the associated disruption to operations or lose out to competitors on the technological advantages in HR and facilities management, such as improved productivity and energy efficiency.

Tony Booty, a Director of Abintra, which has offices in London, UK, and Boston, USA, said: “We would like to see more businesses asking themselves: Where are we going with this investment? Our advice would be don’t just buy the cheapest sensor that you think can do the job. Look to future proof yourself for IoT and smart building technology.”

He explained: “For most office-based businesses, real estate is their second biggest overhead after their people, so naturally they are looking at space utilisation. When it comes to technology to monitor usage, management should be thinking about going one better. Advanced space utilisation monitors and the software behind them naturally lend themselves to connecting with the building’s environmental systems. Bringing together data and automated control of lighting, air quality and heating in one system joins up the information.”

Rather than mount a myriad of sensors and wiring throughout an office space, Abintra has developed a wireless sensor with multiple capabilities. It can be mounted in ceiling voids or flush with ceiling, and can even serve as a warning light outside a meeting room to show that it is occupied or not, based on information it gets from sensors inside the room.

“It is about using a component that has to be there and leveraging it,” said Mr Booty, who sees a future where desks, chairs and office components each have their own IP address and can identify themselves for digital building design and management, systems that will be increasingly powerful as buildings become ever smarter.

“There is an environmental benefit as well as a cost one,” said Mr Booty. “I think many facilities managers probably think there aren’t any further savings to be made in lighting after the introduction of LED, but there are, and although they are relatively small, taken together with all of the other environmental efficiencies that are possible, it is definitely worth investigating.”

Mr Booty is a passionate advocate for thinking beyond using the technology for cost savings, however: “Understanding how space is used and being able to monitor and respond to that in real-time creates a better working environment, not just in the traditional desk space, but by freeing up space to create new kinds of individual and collaborative areas, essential for flexible working and flexible environments. That creates a competitive advantage when it comes to recruitment and retention, and since people are an even larger overhead than real estate, it is an opportunity that businesses should be seizing.”

Introducing Surveys – the fast way to monitor your office space

How long will it take you to find out if you’re using your office space efficiently? Book one of our fast-track workplace surveys, and you’ll have all the answers at your fingertips in just four weeks.

Booking your four-week study is a great first step towards introducing flexible working, or making your existing office layouts even more agile.

Our experts will install the sensors and link them wirelessly to our award-winning software. We’ll help you to interpret the data, and we’ll advise on new workplace strategies in line with your corporate goals.

You’ll discover for the first time exactly how much desk space is going to waste and how often those over-booked meeting rooms are really being used. The results are often genuinely astonishing with typical potential space savings of 30 per cent or even more.

Knowing how your office real estate is actually used can translate into lower overheads, and it also gives you the option to create more agile working environments, which are valued by employees. So realigning your workspace can make a real contribution to recruitment and retention.

Abintra always involves your people from the outset in any space utilisation study so that they come along on the journey. It’s all about making better spaces that support you and your people to deliver your business objectives.

The starting point is knowing where you are now, and that’s where Abintra adds value. Unlike some alternative methods, our Wisenet system delivers ultra-accurate data that can be studied over any timeframe and filtered by any parameter of your choice. Most importantly, with Wisenet, you know you can rely on the results.

Join major corporations worldwide who trust Abintra’s industry-leading expertise for unrivalled insight into office real estate. Our pioneering WiseNet sensor technology sets the industry benchmark for utilisation and environmental monitoring.

To find out more, please use the Contact link below.

You’re just four weeks away from finding how you’re using your office real estate and how to adapt for the future.

Seeing the Big Picture: Best Practice in Office Utilisation Episode One

In this first instalment of our new series on Best Practice in Office Utilisation, we highlight the importance of adopting a business-wide approach to unlock the new world of flexible working

If you work in a large corporation, the chances are your office real estate is your single biggest overhead after your staff. It’s also quite likely that you have one team responsible for your workforce and an entirely separate one for your building management. That is not ideal because, of course, people and places are closely intertwined. Corporations will never get the best out of their people nor make the most of their real estate assets if they don’t look at their organisations in the round. That is why when it comes to reviewing how you use your office real estate, the first step is to see the big picture. It’s number one on our list of best practice in office utilisation for a reason.

There are several reasons why a real estate review might come up. An organisation may be expanding and feel that it needs more space or vice versa. It might be opening in a new location or downsizing one. Perhaps someone has decided that the existing premises need a revamp, or gloomy economic predictions may have put real estate costs on the FD’s agenda. All of these are to a greater or lesser extent linked to the bottom line, and there is no getting away from the fact that Grade A offices are big ticket items. Our 2018 study ‘Wasted Space’ revealed that major organisations in the UK were collectively wasting £10 billion in under-utilised office real estate.

People first

Yet one of the biggest current drivers for corporations carrying out real estate reviews has less to do with money and everything to do with people. It is, of course, flexible working. The benefits of flexible, or agile, working have been the subject of thousands of column inches and broadcast hours in workplace and business media. More and more corporations seeing the potential to make space savings. Having worked with more than 100 organisations worldwide, we’ve seen that the scale of those savings can be quite astonishing: 30 per cent or even more is typical. As our report into the subject showed, those savings could be turned into monetary advantage.

However, many of our customers have done things differently and used the data we collect for them to reimagine their workspaces. That’s because the way we work is changing, and people want to work in places that are adapted to new ways of working. In order to recruit and retain the best people, corporations are realising they have to satisfy the demand of a new, agile generation of workers. We have seen customers switching to flexible working to move away from the one-person-one-desk-and-a-shared-meeting-room norm, giving room to introduce new breakout areas for informal team chats and even franchised coffee shops.

Mission critical

It seems fair to say that responding to the new world of work should be mission critical for any major corporation. After all, flexible or agile working are undoubtedly hot topics in business, and the related area of smart buildings is also hitting the headlines. These new approaches to office and people management offer bottom-line benefits in recruitment, retention, productivity and efficient use of space. Yet many organisations are failing to unlock the potential, and this is especially true for large, well-resourced corporations who stand to gain the most. Too often it seems that a big picture either isn’t in the frame or doesn’t have the drive from the top behind it to make it happen. We see it manifested in organisations failing to get to grips with flexible working or opting for low-cost real estate reviews that give unreliable data to managers with blinkered ideas. Why does this happen?

The challenge is that implementing this kind of cultural change takes a business-wide approach. Without it, corporations will fail to implement flexible working properly and will miss out on the advent of smart buildings.

That means senior management needs to champion a holistic approach to reorganising the workplace. It shouldn’t be just the preserve of the real estate or FM team. It needs to be communicated across the whole business. HR should be fully involved to help to create an improved environment. IT has a crucial role to play.

Driving change

So, management should be driving change. After all, the benefits are going to help you to deliver on corporate objectives, such as improved efficiency and better recruitment and retention. To make it happen will take more than delegating responsibility to a single team. We need to bring teams together on an enterprise-wide mission.

Advances in smart buildings add new emphasis to the need for a well-rounded approach to workplace design. We now have the technology, not only to enable flexible working but also to monitor and control the environment as never before, right down to the individual desk level. As smart buildings gain traction, it’s crucial that teams work together to reap the rewards, looking beyond energy savings and towards creating a better, more productive work environment, one that contributes to employees’ health and wellbeing.

By monitoring the office environment and how and when it is being used, we can create adaptable workplaces that address all users’ needs, from physical comfort and wellbeing to how the environment supports them to do their job effectively.

Wellbeing

At Abintra, we are seeing an increasing number of enquiries from customers wanting to overhaul their working environments. That’s because employee wellbeing is rising up the corporate agenda.

Recruitment and retention are massive priorities for major corporations, and this is leading to more and more of them reviewing their working environments.

Unfortunately, many are making mistakes by failing to bring teams together to implement change. It’s also vitally important to involve the workforce in the process.

There is no doubt that corporations have space to play with. A recently-published Abintra report reveals that large office-based firms with 250 or more employees in England and Wales are together spending more than £10 billion on under-used Grade A office space.

Flexible working

Abintra pioneered workplace utilisation technology more than a decade ago and has since advised more than 100 corporations worldwide to monitor office usage and redesign workspaces. We know it can be done.

It all relates to organisations valuing their number one asset, their people, and leveraging their second biggest overhead, their workplace, to develop environments that address these key factors.

In London alone, the cost of office space being under-utilised is more than £4 billion annually, the report concludes, with large firms in other regions collectively squandering billions more.

Big employers with large office spaces are likely to benefit the most by addressing the issue and switching to flexible working strategies such as desk sharing. They can use Abintra’s workplace monitoring systems and our specialist consultancy expertise to typically find an extra 30 per cent or more of space.

However, we don’t expect the findings to stimulate a rush to smaller premises. Of course, it’s possible to take the data and decide to downsize and save money, but most businesses choose to use their newly-discovered space to enhance the workplace, for example by introducing new agile working areas, such as in-house coffee shops and informal meeting spaces. These have proven benefits for productivity as well as recruitment and retention, so being able to accommodate them without having to take on extra space is a huge advantage.

Real estate decisions

Clearly, information about the amount of space a business actually needs in a given location is critical for planning future real estate decisions. It can also be deployed by risk managers to ensure sufficient space is available to keep mission critical operations running if there is a disaster within a building or at another nearby company location.

The report reveals that large office-based firms with 250 or more employees in England and Wales are together spending £10,158 million on unnecessary total occupancy costs – that’s rent, rate and associated costs of running a workspace and related office functions.

What’s more, the issue is probably on an even bigger scale than the report’s conclusions, since our calculations are based on modest estimates of the amount of space saving possible and the number of people who work in offices.

Footnote: Businesses blow billions on wasted office space

Big businesses in England and Wales are squandering £10 billion a year by failing to get to grips with under-used office space, as our study shows.

The report ‘Wasted Space: The colossal cost of under-used office real estate’ draws together data from our work with more than 100 corporations worldwide with figures from government and the property industry to put hard numbers on the issue for the first time.

Download the report free

Corporations must harness prop tech to adapt to new ways of work – special report

The world of work will continue to evolve in 2019, and corporations must find ways to adapt their office real estate.

That is the conclusion of a new piece of research by flexible workplace specialist Abintra.

Published in a new report, the study highlights how corporations are struggling to manage office space efficiently as the trend towards agile and flexible working gathers momentum.

The publication explores methods for responding through office space utilisation techniques, including the latest tech options.

Compiled by Abintra’s US office, Emerging Trends in Occupancy Management asks if an emerging class of technology services could be the solution to the challenges faced by real estate professionals in 2019.

It sets out the pros and cons of different approaches to managing office space usage, including people counting and tracking, either manually or via WiFi, swipe cards and PIR sensor systems.

Previous research by Abintra has revealed that corporations waste as much as 30 per cent of office space and two thirds of meeting room space because of under-utilisation. The value of that prime real estate in the UK alone tops £10 billion.

The report shows that companies are learning to get by with fewer people and need less space per worker as they allow more employees to work flexible hours, or work at home.

It quotes one US real estate professional as saying: “There is this constant trend to get more productivity and efficiency out of office space.”

But while real estate managers would like to rationalise the amount of space being used, or to make better use of it, the report points out that doing so is increasingly complex. Density can vary significantly due to various factors such as the nature of work, building codes and even the use of space as a reward for more senior personnel.

Calculating how much space is actually required depends on working out how space is currently used and how it could be adapted. Unfortunately, as the report shows, many of the techniques used for measuring usage don’t deliver reliable information. It points out the flaws in many traditional measurement tools and in many of the technological solutions on the market.

Abintra’s own system relies on passive infrared sensors mounted to the underside of work surfaces to detect presence linked to powerful software. It is non-invasive compared with systems that rely on individual workers’ phones or computers to track them. The resulting data is displayed on a live floor plan, available on an app, web browser or a display in the office entrance area so that employees can see where there are available desks within a building and choose where to work.

The report draws on Abintra’s experience in the field as well as publicly-available information from Avison Young, CBRE, Urban Land Institute, Balfour Management Consultants, Harvard Business Review, Deloitte and MarketWatch.

The report is available to download at https://abintra-consulting.co.uk/emerging-trends-in-occupancy-management/